Glossary

Anticipation

Preparing a motion by first going into the opposite direction to build up momentum is called anticipation. The anticipation position creates a larger distance for applying directional force (like the swing of an arm during a throw). When the force stops (e.g. the ball leaves the hand during a throw) the object has gained momentum…

Ease in

Slowing down at the end of a motion is called an ease out. The impression of deceleration is created by gradually decreasing the spacing between every passing frame. This is seen from the perspective of the end keyframe: We are easing into the end (not out of the motion). The opposite is called an ease…

Ease out

Speeding up at the beginning of a motion is called an ease out. The impression of acceleration is created by gradually increasing the spacing between every passing frame. This is seen from the perspective of that first keyframe: We are easing out of it (not into the motion). The opposite is called an ease in….

Easing

Easing describes how softly a motion starts and ends through acceleration and deceleration. This is achieved by graduadlly increasing or decreasing the spacing, Speeding up at the beginning of a motion is called an ease out. Slowing down at the end of a motion is called an ease in. Strong easing makes an animation feel…

Favoring

Drawing closer to the lines of either the previous or the next key to create ease out or ease in. Favoring as in “In this drawing, I favor the lines of the previous key over the line of the next key.” The term favoring is often used by 2D animators drawing individual frames either using…

flip book

A flip book is a stack of slightly changing pictures. When the pages are turned rapidly an illusion of motion or morphing can be seen. How to create a flip book? You can use the corner of a book, post-it notes or a stack of index cards held together with binder clips. A flip book…

Key pose

Key poses are the most important poses of an animation. Every single one is needed to understand and advance the story. Also known as: storytelling pose, golden pose, super pose, keys

Keyframe

A keyframe marks an important step within an animation like the start or end of a motion. In computer animation a keyframe is a frame on the timeline that stores coordinates and values (like position, scale, rotation, opacity etc.). Often times the computer creates the motion from one keyframe to another by interpolating these values…

Pose to pose

When animating pose to pose, the animator defines the most important poses first (e.g. key poses), then the second most important poses (e.g. extremes and breakdowns) and so on. This is a very systematic approach where more keyframes are continuously added between poses. The big advantage of pose to pose animation is that a rough…

Spacing

Spacing is the distance an element travels between two frames of an animation. By increasing and decreasing the spacings over the course of multiple frames, easing can be added to a motion. A motion with the same spacing between each frame is called a linear motion. This only occurs very rarely in nature and usually…