Glossary

Anticipation

Preparing a motion by first going into the opposite direction to build up momentum is called anticipation. The anticipation position creates a larger distance for applying directional force (like the swing of an arm during a throw). When the force stops (e.g. the ball leaves the hand during a throw) the object has gained momentum…

Breakdown

A breakdown is a pose at the turning point of a motion path – often during the fastest moment of a motion. It’s often seen as the middle of a motion, but it doesn’t have to be exactly in the middle for both the timing and the spacing. While key poses and extremes are often…

Center of Gravity

the center of the average mass distribution. This point needs to be above a base of support of a character to keep the balance when standing still.

Drag

Loose, attached parts tend to start moving with a delay and lag behind because of inertia. This is clearly visible at the tip of dangling cloth or tails. They seem to briefly stay in place after the element they are attached to already started moving and they are being dragged behind pointing towards the direction…

Ease in

Slowing down at the end of a motion is called an ease out. The impression of deceleration is created by gradually decreasing the spacing between every passing frame. This is seen from the perspective of the end keyframe: We are easing into the end (not out of the motion). The opposite is called an ease…

Ease out

Speeding up at the beginning of a motion is called an ease out. The impression of acceleration is created by gradually increasing the spacing between every passing frame. This is seen from the perspective of that first keyframe: We are easing out of it (not into the motion). The opposite is called an ease in….

Easing

Easing describes how softly a motion starts and ends through acceleration and deceleration. This is achieved by graduadlly increasing or decreasing the spacing, Speeding up at the beginning of a motion is called an ease out. Slowing down at the end of a motion is called an ease in. Strong easing makes an animation feel…

Extreme Keyframe

An extreme keyframe is the moment where a change in direction occurs. Anticipation and Overshoots are Extremes, because they prepare or catch a motion by going into the opposite direction of the next keyframe.

Favoring

Drawing closer to the lines of either the previous or the next key to create ease out or ease in. Favoring as in “In this drawing, I favor the lines of the previous key over the line of the next key.” The term favoring is often used by 2D animators drawing individual frames either using…

Flip Book

A flip book is a stack of slightly changing pictures. When the pages are turned rapidly an illusion of motion or morphing can be seen. How to create a flip book? You can use the corner of a book, post-it notes or a stack of index cards held together with binder clips. A flip book…