Follow Through

Loose, attached parts tend to continue moving after the leading element came to a stop. When a leading element is slowing down, the dragged behind parts still have a lot of momentum and therefore keep going at a higher speed, which causes them to pass the main element. This causes an overlap.


Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any changes like starting or stopping a motion or changing direction. Heavier objects require a lot of force to change their state. Lighter objects require little force to change their state.

Key pose

Key poses are the most important poses of an animation. Every single one is needed to understand and advance the story. Also known as: storytelling pose, golden pose, super pose, keys


A keyframe marks an important step within an animation like the start or end of a motion. In computer animation a keyframe is a frame on the timeline that stores coordinates and values (like position, scale, rotation, opacity etc.). Often times the computer creates the motion from one keyframe to another by interpolating these values…


Different elements of an object or body, come to a stop of different times. This usually happens because an attached, looser element still has to continue a follow-through motion after the leading element already stopped moving.

Pose to pose

When animating pose to pose, the animator defines the most important poses first (e.g. key poses), then the second most important poses (e.g. extremes and breakdowns) and so on. This is a very systematic approach where more keyframes are continuously added between poses. The big advantage of pose to pose animation is that a rough…


Reversing the curve of a line of action or shape. Usually indicates a big change in the motion and is often caused by phyiscal forces, but can also be used to create a bigger contrast between poses.


Spacing is the distance an element travels between two frames of an animation. By increasing and decreasing the spacings over the course of multiple frames, easing can be added to a motion. A motion with the same spacing between each frame is called a linear motion. This only occurs very rarely in nature and usually…

Straight ahead

When animating straight ahead, the animator draws one frame of the animation after another in order. Because the motion evolves chronologically, without big jumps around the timeline, it’s easier to feel its flow. The resulting animations can feel very smooth, but due to the lack of planning the poses might not be as strong and…